Himeji Castle is a hilltop Japanese castle complex situated in the city of Himeji which is located in the Hyōgo Prefecture of Japan. The castle is regarded as the finest surviving example of prototypical Japanese castle architecture, comprising a network of 83 rooms with advanced defensive systems from the feudal period. The castle is frequently known as Hakuro-jō or Shirasagi-jō (“White Egret Castle” or “White Heron Castle”) because of its brilliant white exterior and supposed resemblance to a bird taking flight.
Himeji Castle dates to 1333 when Akamatsu Norimura built a fort on top of Himeyama hill. After being dismantled and rebuilt many times, Himeji Castle has remained intact for almost 700 years.
Himeji Castle is the largest castle in Japan. It serves as an excellent example of prototypical Japanese castle architecture, containing many of the defensive and architectural features associated with Japanese castles. The curved walls of Himeji Castle are sometimes said to resemble giant fans, but the principal materials used in the structures are stone and wood. Feudal family crests are installed throughout the architecture of the building, signifying the various lords that inhabited the castle throughout its history.
Himeji Castle contains advanced defensive systems from the feudal period. Loopholes in the shape of circles, triangles, squares, and rectangles are located throughout Himeji Castle, intended to allow defenders armed with tanegashima or archers to fire on attackers without exposing themselves. Roughly 1,000 loopholes exist in the castle buildings remaining today.
The Himeji Castle complex is located in the center of Himeji, Hyōgo on top of a hill called Himeyama, which is 45.6 m above sea level. The castle complex comprises a network of 83 buildings such as storehouses, gates, corridors, and turrets. Of these 83 buildings, 74 are designated as Important Cultural Assets: 11 corridors, 16 turrets, 15 gates, and 32 earthen walls. The highest walls in the castle complex have a height of 26 m. Joining the castle complex is Kōko-en, a Japanese garden created in 1992 to commemorate Himeji city’s 100th anniversary.
The main keep at the center of the complex is 46.4 m high, standing 92 m above sea level. Together with the main keep, three smaller subsidiary keeps forming a cluster of towers. Externally, the keep appears to have five floors, because the second and third floors from the top appear to be a single floor; however, it actually has six floors and a basement. The basement of the main keep has an area of 385 m2, and its interior contains special facilities that are not seen in other castles, including lavatories, a drain board, and a kitchen corridor.
Himeji Castle is the largest and most visited castle in Japan, and it was registered in 1993 as one of the first UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the country. The area within the middle moat of the castle complex is a designated Special Historic Site and five structures of the castle are also designated National Treasures. Along with Matsumoto Castle and Kumamoto Castle, Himeji Castle is considered one of Japan’s three premier castles.
According to Wikipedia