Located in Alberta’s Rocky Mountains, 110–180 kilometers west of Calgary, Banff encompasses 6,641 square kilometers of mountainous terrain, with many glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forests, and alpine landscapes.
Banff National Park has a subarctic climate with three ecoregions, including montane, subalpine, and alpine. The forests are dominated by Lodgepole pine at lower elevations and Engelmann spruce in higher ones below the treeline, above which is primarily rocks and ice. The mountains are formed from sedimentary rocks which were pushed east over newer rock strata, between 80 and 55 million years ago. Erosion from water and ice has carved the mountains into their current shapes.
Banff National Park is an outdoor enthusiast’s paradise, defined by a picture-perfect mountain landscape of rugged peaks, sparkling lakes, and powerful rivers. Spanning 2,564 square miles, the park is part of the iconic Canadian Rockies mountain range. Tourists enjoy hiking, fishing, skiing, and wildlife watching, or simply relax in natural hot springs and admire the park’s majestic natural scenery.
Although Banff is infamous for its mountainous landscape, the park also contains several incredible icefields and glaciers – many of which are accessible to visitors. The largest glaciated areas, the Waputik and Wapta Icefields sit on the Banff-Yoho border. The Waputik Icefield spans over 21 square miles in area and feeds the Peyto, Bow, and Vulture Glaciers. The Columbia Icefield, which sits at the northern end of the park, straddles the Banff and Jasper border. The Columbia Icefield is the largest icefield in the Rocky Mountains and feeds Athabasca Glacier, one of the most popular attractions in the park, as well as five other glaciers – the Castleguard, Columbia, Dome, Stutfield, and Saskatchewan glaciers.
In the warmer months, Banff offers over 1,600 kilometers of defined trails to explore. Take on one of the scenic trails running through the Sunshine Meadows, an alpine meadow set at an elevation of around 7,300 feet. The Parker Ridge Trail is another favorite of hikers, offering incredible views of the Saskatchewan Glacier.
Winter in Banff National Park is all about skiing, with the park offering one of the longest ski seasons in North America. Enjoy heated chairlifts and more than 107 runs at Sunshine Village and head to the Lake Louise Ski Resort to try other winter activities like tubing and snowshoeing.
According to Wikipedia