Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean and in the Arctic Ocean. Iceland is the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Iceland is at the juncture of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. The main island is entirely south of the Arctic Circle, which passes through the small Icelandic island of Grímsey off the main island’s northern coast. The country lies between latitudes 63 and 68°N, and longitudes 25 and 13°W.
Iceland is closer to continental Europe than to mainland North America, although it is closest to Greenland (290 km), an island of North America.
Iceland is the world’s 18th-largest island and Europe’s second-largest island after Great Britain. (The island of Ireland is third.) The main island covers 101,826 km2, but the entire country is 103,000 km2 in size, of which 62.7% is tundra. The island was formed from volcanic eruptions from the mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Geologically, Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a ridge along which the oceanic crust spreads and forms a new oceanic crust. This part of the mid-ocean ridge is located above a mantle plume, causing Iceland to be subaerial (above the surface of the sea). The ridge marks the boundary between the Eurasian and North American Plates, and Iceland was created by rifting and accretion through volcanism along the ridge. The island’s interior, the Highlands of Iceland, is a cold and uninhabitable combination of sand, mountains, and lava fields.
A geologically young land, Iceland is the surface expression of the Iceland Plateau, a large igneous province forming as a result of volcanism from the Iceland hotspot and along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the latter of which runs right through it. This means that the island is highly geologically active with many volcanoes including Hekla, Eldgjá, Herðubreið, and Eldfell. After the eruption of the Fagradalsfjall volcano on 19 March 2021, National Geographic’s experts predicted that this “may mark the start of decades of volcanic activity.” The eruption was small, leading to a prediction that this volcano was unlikely to threaten “any population centers”.
According to Wikipedia