The History of Science Museum in Broad Street, Oxford, England, holds a leading collection of scientific instruments from the Middle Ages to the 19th century. The museum building is also known as the Old Ashmolean Building to distinguish it from the newer Ashmolean Museum building completed in 1894. The museum was built in 1683, and it is the world’s oldest surviving purpose-built museum.

Built in 1683 to house Elias Ashmole’s collection, the building was the world’s first purpose-built museum building and was also open to the public. The original concept of the museum was to institutionalize the new learning about nature that appeared in the 17th century and experiments concerning natural philosophy were undertaken in a chemical laboratory in the basement, while lectures and demonstrations took place in the School of Natural History, on the middle floor.

In 1924, Lewis Evans donated his collection of historic scientific instruments, creating the Lewis Evans Collection. In 1935, with more donations, the museum’s name was changed to the Museum of the History of Science. In 2018, the museum was renamed the History of Science Museum.

According to Wikipedia