The Mawson Station, commonly called Mawson, is one of three permanent bases and research outposts in Antarctica managed by the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD). Mawson lies in Holme Bay in Mac. Robertson Land, East Antarctica in the Australian Antarctic Territory, a territory claimed by Australia. Established in 1954, Mawson is Australia’s oldest Antarctic station and the oldest continuously inhabited Antarctic station south of the Antarctic Circle.
Mawson was named in honor of the Australian Antarctic explorer Sir Douglas Mawson.
Mawson Station is a base for scientific research programs including an underground cosmic ray detector, various long-term meteorological aeronomy, and geomagnetic studies, as well as ongoing conservation biology studies, in particular of nearby Auster rookery, a breeding ground for emperor penguins and Adélie penguins.
Mawson Station houses approximately 20 personnel over winter and up to 60 in summer. It is the only Antarctic station to use wind generators for over 70% of its power needs, saving over 600,000 liters (130,000 imp gal; 160,000 US gal) of diesel fuel per year. It is accessible by sea for only a short period each austral summer, between February and March. Mawson’s infrastructure includes an ANARESAT satellite antenna Earth station for communication.
Mawson was listed on the Register of the National Estate in 2001 and listed on the Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004, reflecting the post-World War Two revival of Australia’s scientific research and territorial interests in Antarctica.
According to Wikipedia/ antarctica.gov.au